Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the tissue surrounding dental implants that have replaced extracted or missing teeth. Peri-implant disease occurs when the soft tissue around the dental implant becomes infected and begins to break down. This can lead to pain, swelling, difficulty biting and chewing, and implant failure if left untreated.
Peri-implantitis is typically caused by poor oral hygiene and can be treated with a combination of deep cleaning and antimicrobial therapy. In severe cases, the implant may need to be removed and replaced.
What is Peri Implant Mucositis?
Peri-implant mucositis, an early stage of peri-implant disease, is similar to gingivitis (early stage of gum disease). This early-stage infection is easier to treat than more advanced peri-implantitis and is also easily prevented by proper oral hygiene and regular dental cleaning.
However, keep in mind that oral implants are less resistant to natural erosion caused by biofilm buildup than natural teeth. Therefore, it is still important to prevent the development of peri-implant and periodontal diseases in order to keep your artificial and natural teeth healthy and in place.
How Common Is Peri-implantitis?
The prevalence of peri-implantitis varies depending on the population you are studying and how you define “peri-implantitis”. But overall, the prevalence of peri-implantitis is about 20%, with the highest rates occurring in people who smoke, have underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, or have a doctor who isn’t as meticulous as they might be.
It is worth noting that the prevalence of peri-implantitis may be higher in people who have had dental implants for many years because the risk of developing this condition tends to increase over time.
What Causes Peri-implantitis?
Peri implantitis is typically caused by poor oral health that allows bacteria to build up below the gumline. Uncontrollable oral bacteria can lead to infection and inflammation of the gingiva (gum tissue) or mucosa.
Other risk factors that we know increase the risk of developing peri-implantitis include:
Smokers are at higher risk of developing peri-implantitis due to reduced blood flow to the gums. In addition, more bacterial plaque occurs in the mouths of smokers.
People with uncontrolled diabetes have an increased risk of developing peri-implantitis due to reduced blood flow. Poor circulation hinders your ability to heal from injury or infection.
.Suppressed Immune System
Immunocompromised patients, such as HIV/AIDS or cancer patients, are at higher risk of peri-implantitis. A weakened immune system cannot effectively fight the pathogens that cause periodontal disease and peri-implantitis, resulting in more serious infections.
.Poor Implant Placement
Improperly placed implants or implants placed in areas with insufficient bone support increase the risk of bacterial infection in the tissue around the implant.
Applying too much force to the implant, such as by biting or chewing hard food, can lead to peri-implantitis as it causes the implant to wear out more quickly and become damaged. Tiny cracks in the implant create hiding places for bacteria.
.Poor Fit Crowns or Other Restorations
If the crown or other restoration is not seated properly, it can cause irritation and inflammation of the tissue at the implant site, leading to peri-implantitis.
Your periodontist or dentist will want to see you for at least one follow-up appointment after dental implant treatment. At this visit, they will check to see if there are any problems with the implant or the surrounding tissue. Skipping your pursuit can cause small problems to grow uncontrollably and turn into bigger problems.
What are the Symptoms of Peri Implantitis?
Symptoms may include:
Swelling or redness of the gums around the implant
.Discharge of pus from around the implant (suppuration)
.Pain and tenderness in the gums around the implant
.Bad taste in mouth
.Loosening of the implant
An advanced peri-implantitis can cause lesions or bone loss.
What Are the Stages of Peri Implantitis?
It has several stages. These:
This is the earliest stage of peri-implantitis, where the gums around the implant are red and swollen. This is usually caused by bacteria that has accumulated on the implant surface.
At this stage, the inflammation around the implant becomes more severe and can lead to bone loss around the implant. Gums may also become more swollen and painful.
.Advanced Peri Implantitis
At this stage, the inflammation around the implant is more severe. The implant may become loose and there may be visible signs of infection such as pus.
If peri-implantitis is not treated, the implant may eventually fail. At this point, the implant must be completely removed and bone regeneration or grafting will be required before implant treatment can be tried again.
If caught early, major damage can be prevented and the implant is salvaged. Appropriate management of peri-implantitis requires the intervention of a periodontal specialist.
Your periodontist has access to more advanced diagnostic tools (such as radiographs) to assess your periimplantist’s progress.
Can Peri Implantitis Be Treated?
While it is possible to treat peri-implantitis and stop the progression of the disease, it is not always reversible. The success of peri-implantitis treatment depends on the severity of the disease and how early you start treatment.
In the early stages of peri-implantitis, it is usually possible to reverse the damage through a combination of scab removal and root straightening (a type of deep cleansing) and the use of an antimicrobial mouthwash or gel. If the disease is more advanced, additional treatment such as surgery to remove infected tissue or bone grafting to treat bone loss may be necessary.
What are Peri Implantitis Treatments?
Treatment of peri-implantitis typically includes a combination of mechanical debridement (removal of damaged tissue and bacteria) and antimicrobial therapy. The aim of these treatment options is to decontaminate the tissue around the implant before the infection spreads to the jawbone.
Mechanical debridement involves removing plaque and tartar from the implant surface and surrounding tissue using special instruments. A periodontist can do this in his office.
Antimicrobial therapy involves using antimicrobial mouth rinses or topical gels to kill bacteria and control infection. Chlorhexidine gluconate is an antimicrobial rinse widely used in the treatment of peri-implantitis.
Surgical intervention may be required if peri-implantitis is severe or does not respond to non-surgical treatment. Surgical treatment for peri-implantitis may include removal of infected tissue and bone, as well as placement of antimicrobial agents to aid infection control.
How to Prevent Peri Impalntitis?
Proper case planning before implant placement is extremely important for successful implant results. So, if you choose a doctor with a great reputation who really knows what they’re doing, they can greatly reduce most potential problems right from the start.
How to Treat Peri implantitis at Home?
Maintaining good oral hygiene is critically important to prevent the occurrence (or recurrence) of peri-implantitis. Home treatment includes twice-daily brushing and flossing of teeth and implant surfaces for effective plaque control. Also, use an antimicrobial mouthwash to remove bacteria hiding in the mouth.
It is also important to see a periodontist regularly for cleanings and checkups.